A few weeks ago, I broke a beloved "tallboy" salt shaker. You can read more about that disaster here.
This launched a search for a food-safe adhesive. A colleague in art conservation suggested Paraloid b-72 prepared in acetone, which you can purchase from retailers such as Talas.
The repair was much simplier than I thought it would be. I applied some adhesive from a small tube onto the lower part of the shaker, and I firmly pressed the upper part of the shaker onto the bottom. The adhesive is clear, and you can easily peal any excess off the surface of the object.